The rising level of cardiovascular risk factors is the root of the rapid increase of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, among which hypertension is the most important risk factor. Besides its direct harm, hypertension mainly causes damage to target organs such as heart, brain and kidney, which seriously threatens the health of the people.
Hypertension is also a preventable and treatable disease. Active and effective prevention and control of hypertension can effectively prevent and curb the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease and a major public health problem worldwide. The survey of nutrition and health status of Chinese residents in 2002 showed that the prevalence rate of hypertension among residents aged 18 and above in China was 18.8%, and the estimated number of patients in China exceeded 160 million. Compared with 1991, the prevalence rate increased by 31%, and the number of patients increased by about 70 million.
First, prevent high blood pressure, starting from every day.
Restricting intake of sodium salt: Excessive intake of sodium salt increases the risk of hypertension, and long-term salt can delay the increase of blood pressure with age. The average salt intake in China exceeds 9g/day, and the World Health Organization recommends that the salt intake per person should not exceed 5g/ day.
Weight loss: Overweight and obesity can increase blood pressure and increase the risk of hypertension. Abdominal obesity may have a stronger correlation with hypertension. It is recommended that overweight and obese people lose weight.
Moderate exercise: Exercise can reduce sympathetic activity, relieve tension, lose weight and reduce the risk of hypertension. It is suggested to do proper aerobic exercise, muscle strength exercises and flexibility exercises according to their own conditions.
Quitting smoking: Smoking can increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, so it is recommended to quit smoking.
Quit drinking: Heavy drinking raises blood pressure, and abstinence from drinking is most beneficial to health. Patients with hypertension are advised not to drink alcohol. At present, people with hypertension who drink alcohol are advised to stop drinking. If you can’t stop drinking completely for the time being, you should try to reduce the amount of alcohol you drink.
Maintain psychological balance: Long-term mental stress or anxiety and depression can increase the risk of hypertension. We should keep a positive and optimistic attitude and avoid negative emotions. Actively accept psychological intervention when necessary.
Second, the blood pressure exceeds 140/90(mmHg).
Without antihypertensive drugs, if the blood pressure in the clinic exceeds 140/90mmHg three times on the same day, it can be diagnosed as hypertension, and treatment should be started.
Attention should be paid if blood pressure exceeds 130/80mmHg. With the increase of blood pressure, it may bring harm to heart, brain and kidney.
Third, control hypertension and protect heart, brain and kidney.
The main harm of hypertension is the damage of heart, brain and kidney and other important organs, even life-threatening. Therefore, active treatment should be taken to control blood pressure. Treatment strategies include healthy lifestyle and medication.
All patients adhere to a healthy lifestyle. Healthy lifestyle intervention can effectively reduce blood pressure or directly reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (six parts of healthy lifestyle: limit salt, lose weight, exercise more, and quit smoking and drinking).
Patients with hypertension who fail to meet the standard by lifestyle intervention alone should receive antihypertensive drugs.
Fourth, abnormal blood pressure, blood lipid and blood sugar.
According to the survey of hypertension in China from 2012 to 2015, the crude rate of normal high blood pressure in Chinese residents ≥18 years old was 39.1%, and the weighted rate was 41.3%. And it is becoming younger.
Investigation shows that the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Chinese residents are obviously increased, and the main type of dyslipidemia is developing towards hypercholesterolemia. At present, the awareness rate, treatment rate and control rate of dyslipidemia among adults in China are still at a low level. In 2012, the research conducted among more than 16,000 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years in China showed that the total detection rate of dyslipidemia was 28.5%.
The standardized prevalence rate of adult diabetes in China is 10.9%, and the detection rate of pre-diabetes is 35.7%. According to the calculation of about 1.09 billion adults in Chinese mainland, 390 million adults are pre-diabetes.
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